high fever in children with
Classification of acute febrile illness 1. Infectious diseases: acute infectious diseases early, acute infectious diseases of various systems.
Children with high fever 2. Non-infectious diseases: heat disease, neonatal thermal dehydration, intracranial injury, such as grand mal seizures and epilepsy. 3. Allergy: Allergy, allogeneic serum, vaccination reactions, infusion, transfusion reactions. Long-term heat 1. Common diseases: sepsis, Salmonella infections, tuberculosis, rheumatic fever, rheumatism and other childhood classes. 2. Rare diseases: cancer (leukemia, malignant lymphoma, malignant histiocytosis), connective tissue disease. Axillary temperature over 37.4 , and the temperature fluctuation between day or more than 1 . Low heat, that axillary temperature is 37.5 ~ 38 , with moderate heat 38.1 ~ 39 , heat 39.1 ~ 40 , 41 , compared with more than high heat. Fever fever for a long time more than two weeks. Disease causes food history, history of exposure to contaminated water or livestock. Once after the onset of drug name, dosage, results. Ever line of vaccination, whether the temperature is too high or excessive sweating, drinking water shortage situation. History of diagnostic tests
Priority attention to children with high fever onset, fever, date, time, the Department of fever (38 or so), fever (39 or above) or super high fever (40.5 above), thermal type is missed heat, or the intermittent fever remittent fever. Any associated symptoms, with o
r without history of exposure to cold, or infectious diseases, unclean food history, history of exposure to contaminated water or livestock. Once after the onset of drug name, dosage, results. Ever line of vaccination, whether the temperature is too high or excessive sweating, drinking water shortage situation. Whether medical attention before the fontanelle bulge, beating strong, yellowish discoloration of skin, rash or bleeding, superficial lymph nodes, liver and spleen enlargement, neck stiffness and signs of nervous system abnormalities, detailed investigation of cardiopulmonary and abdominal conditions, long-term fever also should pay attention to body weight, mental state and sweating situation. Blood test, ESR, if necessary, to send blood cultures, blood smear to find abnormal blood cells or parasites. Appropriate for the tuberculin test, anti-"O", Heterophile agglutination test, Widal reaction, and the relevant serum agglutination test and complement fixation test and so on. Urine, and training will be routine pathogens cultured pharyngeal secretions. Suspected meningitis, lumbar puncture cerebrospinal fluid. When necessary, blood, urine, stools or local secretions for virus isolation. Chest X-ray examination if necessary, for ultrasonic inspection. Differential diagnosis may be clear by examining the general.
Children with high fever in the summer heat can also be infected with other viral or bacterial infections such as purulent tonsillitis, lymphadenitis, pneumonia, dysentery, typhoid or encephalitis and so on. But outside of these illness, fever there will be some performance, careful examination is not difficult to diagnose. However, high fever, such as infants and young children, have to pay attention to the so-called "hidden" bacteria Blood. The past 10 years have been reported abroad: in the heat of infants under 2 years of bacteria found in blood, if not in time will develop pneumonia or even meningitis. The bacteremia incidence rate is not high, but must not be taken lightly. Home care regulatory function of the central nervous system in children is poor, sweat gland development is not perfect, body temperature regulation function is poor, therefore, very easy to fever in children.
Children with high fever fever is not a disease but many diseases, a common performance. Many diseases caused by heat, summed up in two categories, one is by a virus, bacteria, fungi and other pathogenic microorganisms and parasites, invasion, infection, such as the common cold, tonsillitis, otitis media, typhoid and dysentery. The other non-infectious diseases such as rheumatic fever, children rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, leukemia, cancer, etc., which cause fever in children the most common cold. Fever is a defense mechanism the body adapt to internal and external environment compensatory response to human benefit. However, fever in particular, high fever (39 above) lasted too long, a big threat to the health of children. Fever, increased metabolism in the human body of various nutrients, oxygen consumption increased. It has been observed, the temperature is increased by 1 , 13% increase in basal metabolism. Fever at the same time will also affect the digestive function, to reduce the secretion of the digestive tract, digestive enzyme activity was reduced, gastric peristalsis slows down, loss of appetite, or even diarrhea, dehydration. Increase in oxygen consumption when the high heat, heat production increased, a need to accelerate cooling and thus heart rate, cardiac burden. Moreover, the impact of heat on the brain is very serious, it makes the brain cortex hyperexcitability, restlessness, convulsions, talk nonsense, lethargy. In addition, sustained high fever but also the ability to decrease infection in the body defense, which is extremely detrimental to health in children. Thus, children with fever, parents should first be based on the degree of fever and the situation of children be dealt with separately. Early in the disease, if the temperature does not exceed 38 , it does not necessarily have to fever; or if the fever over 39 Although no more than 39 , but there are signs of ventilation, it should be taken. The first is cool. Cooling is the key to home care children with high fever. 0 to 23 months of age children can take care one hundred enjoin (antipyretic oral) drops; 2 children 12 years old child can take one hundred enjoin (antipyretic) solution or chewable tablets, every 4 to 6 hours service time . This has the advantage of antipyretics absorbed quickly after oral administration, 30 minutes into effect, there is no tradition of anti-inflammatory drugs on the stimulation of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as white blood cell, platelet function, which contains components of today''s global pediatrician The most widely used anti-inflammatory drugs. While in the application of antipyretics, but also the physical cooling, conditional sick child should be placed in air-conditioned room. In the forehead, neck next to the armpits, groin, etc. with the temperature and humidity towel it. In severe cases, in addition to the above measures, should be sent to hospital for treatment. In addition, the fever to make sick children well during the bed rest and must not let the heat just sick child back to get up activities. Fever, pediatric physical and a great addition of sweating fever, therefore, must pay attention to add enough water to encourage children to drink more water. Diet should be light, eat some rice soup, gruel, milk, milk, noodles and other liquid diet. Drinking water, eating a few times to be, do not eat too much. In addition, according to take medications, changes in body temperature observed sick child, every 2 to 4 hours the amount of time the body temperature, and make a record, return visit for medical reference. First aid measures more common in children with febrile seizures in children aged less, because the nervous system is not made to improve, once the fever than 40 , there will be two on the turn or strabismus, gaze, limb rigidity and intermittent twitching, facial muscles will twitch from time to time. With confusion, urine incontinence.
Children with high fever when the child due to heat cramps, its terrible symptoms often makes parents nervous. Even in the middle of the night and take their children to the hospital. In fact, a large febrile convulsions in a few seconds or minutes to calm themselves. Therefore, the occurrence of cramps, if the child is lying on the bed, and will not have to worry about, if it is on the road, water or easy to fall in place, will have to pick up the children moved to a safer place for processing. Its head to one side, loosen the child''s buttoned, belts, y to wipe the child''s vomit to prevent choking. Meanwhile, cold towels or ice packs can be placed on the forehead of children and children with lukewarm water to scrub the whole body cooling. With children at home if the fever suppository, remove the one place that children can be anal. Occurrence of febrile convulsions in children not their own tongue bite, do not fill in any items to their mouths. For awake after the children may be given sufficient quantities of sugar, add salt water due to heat loss sweat. If after the above treatment, pediatric seizures continue to occur more than ten minutes or more, should be immediately sent to hospital for treatment. So as not to cramp too long by accident or to irreversible brain damage. Send their children to the hospital on the way, children need to always pay attention to maintaining airway patency, to prevent choking and vomit into. Complications if not handled properly, will result in death or complications in children, such as epilepsy. In addition, children with high fever in children can lead to electrolyte imbalance, dehydration caused by acidosis. 1. Heat cramps usually say 6 months or 6 years old children are not caused by heat cramps, in the 1 to 6 years old children and only 2 to 5% of seizures occur. Cramps occurred in the time of a sudden, high fever, a fever is only drawn once, rarely more than 2 times as long as seizures not long, handled properly, has little effect on child health. However, repeated or persistent cramps can cause brain injury in the brain of oxygen. 2. "Burned out brain," the general heating of tissues and organs of the body has little effect, and can accelerate the generation of resistance. When the temperature above 41 C, the body protein will decompose, causing cerebral edema and encephalopathy disease sequelae of children killed or left behind. Therefore, the child has high fever over 40 C must be urgently addressed. 3. Dehydrated child through the summer distribution of respiratory and skin moisture is more than any other season, even more bitter case of fever, body temperature is increased by 1 C, per kilogram of body weight per hour, an increase of 0.5 ml of water distribution. Antipyretics for serving a large number of loss of water when the body sweats even more. Dehydration not only cooling difficult (in a small infant dehydration itself can cause fever), will also affect the metabolism and blood circulation, the occurrence of acidosis. Therefore the child must be encouraged to water heat, if necessary, under the guidance of doctors infusion. 4. Hypernatremia or hyponatremia, dehydration early fever, blood sodium concentration, blood hypertonic, the occurrence of extremely dry mouth thirst, irritability and even incoherent speech or cramps, heat reclaim, and not only will be higher. Fever course of time, eating poorly, hyponatremia occurs, the children look of weary indifference or even coma. Usually these are more common in malnourished infants. In addition, because infants can cause rapid heartbeat, high fever, a little long time can cause heart failure. Treatment of disease development of the nervous system of infants has not been perfect, easy high fever or fever occur after taking the body temperature and rapid rebound phenomenon. For this reason, parents should have a basic understanding. Parents addition to medical advice and care and treatment of sick children, we must also learn and master the necessary knowledge to identify the disease.
Children with high fever 1. Note the child''s mental state. Although high fever if the child, but the spirit is still good, still smiling after the fever medication can play, and usually less, indicating that the child condition is not heavy, you can rest assured that nursed back to health at home. If your child listlessness, fatigue, indifferent expression, then the tips seriously ill, should be up to the hospital. 2. Observe the child looking. If the child is pale or flushed as usual, you can feel at ease at home nursing care; if looking dim, yellow, blue, purple, eyes in a daze, it indicates a serious condition, should be sent to the hospital. 3. Observe the child without severe, spray vomiting, if that brain lesions, should go to the hospital. 4. See your skin rash, if you are prompted to infectious diseases or drug allergy; see the skin is purple, cool, if there is prompt circulatory failure. Required to go to the hospital in both cases. 5. Observe the child with or without abdominal pain and pus and blood will not let Anrou abdominal pain prompted acute abdomen, sepsis, dysentery and other tips will also be on the hospital. If the child is only heat, the absence of such a variety of complications occurred, although the slow cooling, or when repeated, do not worry, be patient for home treatment, care, may take the following measures: 1. Keep quiet, comfortable, moist indoor air time, adults do not smoke. 2. Fever is the body against foreign microbial invasion of the protective response, contribute to strengthening the body resistance, therefore, 38.5 C below body temperature without clothes antipyretics. Only a temperature above 38.5 C or more, before fever measures to be taken. 3. Sick child should not wear too many clothes, blankets do not cover too thick, not to "cover their sweat," so as not to affect the heat, so that the temperature rise even higher. 4. To encourage children to drink water, eat more fruit. Loss of appetite and fever after the child can prepare some delicious and easy to digest the food, select the child body temperature is not high, or the timing of fever medication eating, but do not eat too full. 5. To keep the stool normally. Disease preventi, clothing to cool and avoid sweating the way with the quilt cover. 2, the indoor air to circulate, if necessary, back and forth with a fan blowing, do not close the doors to keep the kids off the window the wind. 3, to encourage drinking water, to keep the tongue moist, urine clear. 4, attention to nutrition, not free diet, no cough can eat more fruits, especially watermelon, both to add water, sugar and vitamins, but also the effectiveness of heat, should also pay attention to stool. General principle is easy to digest food care, nutritious, and increase a small amount of water several times to avoid force caused by food intake in children Pediatric Gastroenterology burdens. Children with fever are the body to increase the consumption of various nutrients, and produce less heat and to digestion, gastrointestinal function in children will decrease. Pediatric gastrointestinal function itself is weak, so in the heat of the children are prone to loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea and other symptoms. In particular, longer duration, sustained high fever children should pay attention to nutrition, so in the spirit of each heat back, appetite improved in time for the children snacks. Food must be soft, easy to digest, light, such as rice soup, porridge, dairy products, soy products, vegetables, noodles, etc.; the same time is a wasting disease hot, so should be added to the children with high-protein foods such as meat, fish, eggs, etc., but little meat and less greasy food; also eat a small amount of fruit. Drinking water, food should be a small amount of times, must not eat too much.
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